CICA handbook section 3855,

本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛Questions by heheheniwota

under CICA handbook section 3855, available for sale is valued on the basis of fair value and unrealized gain and losses are included in other comprehensive income. Held to maturity are valued at cost. But they are all subject to impairment test. Losses from impairment are charged to net income. Does SFAS 115 also require the impairment test as section 3855?

Answer: by specialday(Joyce)

Yes, under SFAS115 “Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities”. companies have to periodically evaluate their investments (available-for-sale & held-to-maturity) for impairment due to declines in market value considered to be other than temporary.

Impairment of Securities

16. For individual securities classified as either available-for-sale or held-to-maturity, an enterprise
shall determine whether a decline in fair value below the amortized cost basis is other than temporary.
If the decline in fair value is judged to be other than temporary, the cost basis of the individual security shall be
written down to fair value as a new cost basis and the amount of the write-down shall be included in earnings (that is, accounted for as a realized loss).更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
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        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛Questions by heheheniwota

        under CICA handbook section 3855, available for sale is valued on the basis of fair value and unrealized gain and losses are included in other comprehensive income. Held to maturity are valued at cost. But they are all subject to impairment test. Losses from impairment are charged to net income. Does SFAS 115 also require the impairment test as section 3855?

        Answer: by specialday(Joyce)

        Yes, under SFAS115 “Accounting for Certain Investments in Debt and Equity Securities”. companies have to periodically evaluate their investments (available-for-sale & held-to-maturity) for impairment due to declines in market value considered to be other than temporary.

        Impairment of Securities

        16. For individual securities classified as either available-for-sale or held-to-maturity, an enterprise
        shall determine whether a decline in fair value below the amortized cost basis is other than temporary.
        If the decline in fair value is judged to be other than temporary, the cost basis of the individual security shall be
        written down to fair value as a new cost basis and the amount of the write-down shall be included in earnings (that is, accounted for as a realized loss).更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
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        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛来源: 梅影 于 07-09-29

        1.Tell me about yourself.

        What the hiring manager really wants is a quick, two- to three-minute snapshot of who you are and why you’re the best candidate for this position.
        So as you answer this question, talk about what you’ve done to prepare yourself to be the very best candidate for the position. Use an example or two to back it up. Then ask if they would like more details. If they do, keep giving them example after example of your background and experience. Always point back to an example when you have the opportunity.
        “Tell me about yourself” does not mean tell me everything. Just tell me what makes you the best.

        sample answer:

        I have been working in the field of civil engineering for the past 6 years. My most recent experience has been with an engineering consulting firm where I’ve worked for the last 2 years. I enjoy my job because it’s challenging and I like interacting with a variety of people. In my most recent assignment I was on a project that lasted nine months. I made a significant contribution to the project because of my expertise in sanitary engineering. One of my strengths is my attention to detail. I am known for being extremely thorough and meeting or exceeding deadlines and goals. My boss knows that I work well under minimal supervision, that I am very conscientious and that the job will be done right the first time. I’m looking for a new opportunity where I can contribute to the growth of the company by helping educate customers on the benefits of using our consulting services.

        My background to date has been centered on preparing myself to become the very best _____ I can become. Let me tell you specifically how I've prepared myself...

        Tell about your major, what you plan on doing when you get out of college, what other jobs you have had.
        Answer in about two minutes. Avoid details, don’t ramble. Touch on these four areas:
        How many years, doing what function
        Education – credentials
        Major responsibility and accomplishments
        Personal summary of work style (plus career goals if applicable)

        2.Did you bring your resume?
        Yes. Be prepared with two or three extra copies. Do not offer them unless you’re asked for one.

        3.What is your long-range objective?
        The key is to focus on your achievable objectives and what you are doing to reach those objectives.

        For example: “Within five years, I would like to become the very best accountant your company has on staff. I want to work toward becoming the expert that others rely upon. And in doing so, I feel I’ll be fully prepared to take on any greater responsibilities which might be presented in the long term. For example, here is what I’m presently doing to prepare myself . . .”

        Then go on to show by your examples what you are doing to reach your goals and objectives.

        Although it's certainly difficult to predict things far into the future, I know what direction I want to develop toward. Within five years, I would like to become the very best _____ your company has. I would like to become the expert that others rely upon. And in doing so, I feel I will be fully prepared to take on any greater responsibilities that might be presented in the long term.

        4.Are you a team player?
        Describe what would be an ideal working environment?

        Team work is the key.
        Almost everyone says yes to this question. But it is not just a yes/no question. You need to provide behavioral examples to back up your answer.
        A sample answer: “Yes, I’m very much a team player. In fact, I’ve had opportunities in my work, school and athletics to develop my skills as a team player. For example, on a recent project . . .”

        Emphasize teamwork behavioral examples and focus on your openness to diversity of backgrounds. Talk about the strength of the team above the individual. And note that this question may be used as a lead in to questions around how you handle conflict within a team, so be prepared
        You are, of course, a team player. Be sure to have examples ready. Specifics that show you often perform for the good of the team rather than for yourself are good evidence of your team attitude. Do not brag, just say it in a matter-of-fact tone. This is a key point.

        5.What is your greatest weakness?

        Most career books tell you to select strength and present it as a weakness. Such as: “I work too much. I just work and work and work.” Wrong. First of all, using strength and presenting it as a weakness is deceiving. Second, it misses the point of the question.

        You should select a weakness that you have been actively working to overcome. For example: “I have had trouble in the past with planning and prioritization. However, I’m now taking steps to correct this. I just started using a pocket planner . . .” then show them your planner and how you are using it.

        Talk about a true weakness and show what you are doing to overcome it.
        I would say my greatest weakness has been my lack of proper planning in the past. I would overcommit myself with too many variant tasks, then not be able to fully accomplish each as I would like. However, since I've come to recognize that weakness, I've taken steps to correct it. For example, I now carry a planning calendar in my pocket so that I can plan all of my appointments and "to do" items. Here, let me show you how I have this week planned out...

        6.What is your greatest strength?

        Numerous answers are good, just stay positive. A few good examples: Your ability to prioritize, Your problem-solving skills, Your ability to work under pressure, Your ability to focus on projects, Your professional expertise, Your leadership skills, Your positive attitude.

        You know that your key strategy is to first uncover your interviewer's greatest wants and needs before you answer questions. And from Question 1, you know how to do this.

        Prior to any interview, you should have a list mentally prepared of your greatest strengths. You should also have, a specific example or two, which illustrates each strength, an example chosen from your most recent and most impressive achievements.

        You should, have this list of your greatest strengths and corresponding examples from your achievements so well committed to memory that you can recite them cold after being shaken awake at 2:30AM.

        Then, once you uncover your interviewer's greatest wants and needs, you can choose those achievements from your list that best match up.

        As a general guideline, the 10 most desirable traits that all employers love to see in their employees are:
        1. A proven track record as an achiever...especially if your achievements match up with the employer's greatest wants and needs.
        2. Intelligence...management "savvy".
        3. Honesty...integrity...a decent human being.
        4. Good fit with corporate culture...someone to feel comfortable with...a team player who meshes well with interviewer's team.
        5. Likeability...positive attitude...sense of humor.
        6. Good communication skills.
        7. Dedication...willingness to walk the extra mile to achieve excellence.
        8. Definiteness of purpose...clear goals.
        9. Enthusiasm...high level of motivation.
        10. Confident...healthy...a leader.

        7.If you had to live your life over again, what one thing would you change?

        Focus on a key turning point in your life or missed opportunity. Yet also tie it forward to what you are doing to still seek to make that change.

        For example: “Although I’m overall very happy with where I’m at in my life, the one aspect I likely would have changed would be focusing earlier on my chosen career. I had a great internship this past year and look forward to more experience in the field. I simply wish I would have focused here earlier. For example, I learned on my recent internship…” …then provide examples.

        Stay focused on positive direction in your life and back it up with examples.

        8.How did you prepare for this interview?

        When I found this position posted on the internet (monster.com) I was immediately interested. I checked out the company website and mission statement, looked at the bios of company founders and executives, and was impressed. Once I had the interview appointment, I talked with friends and acquaintances in the industry. And, I’m sure I’ll find out a lot more in today’s meetings.”

        9.What kinds of people do you have difficulties working with?

        In my last three jobs I have worked with men and women from very diverse backgrounds and cultures. The only time I had difficulty was with people who were dishonest about work issues. I worked with one woman who was taking credit for work that her team accomplished. I had an opportunity to talk with her one day and explained how she was affecting the morale. She became very upset that others saw her that way, and said she was unaware of her behavior or the reactions of others. Her behavior changed after our talk. What I learned from that experience is that sometimes what we perceive about others is not always the case if we check it out.

        10.How do you handle conflict? (How would you evaluate your ability to deal with conflict?)

        On the job, there are many possible sources of conflict. Conflicts with: fellow employees management rules, procedures clients, customers demands of work vs. personal life, family The best way to approach a good answer is to look at if from the employers point of view—they want to be your first priority and they want you to solve problems (not bring them any). “I know everything cannot run smoothly at work all the time. When there is a conflict I usually try to determine the source of the problem and see if it can be solved. This might involve other members of the work team discussing the problem and offering possible solutions. I would then try to pick the solution which appears to have the best outcome and put it into action.” A natural follow-up to this would be: Tell me when you solved a conflict at work. So, have a brief example… a short story… to illustrate your approach. Even if not asked, you can offer your story! If it proves your point and accentuates a skill needed for the position, go with it.

        I believe I am quite good at handling conflict. Working in retail and in the residence halls required that I make many unpopular decisions at times, whether it was terminating an associate or taking judicial action on a resident. Often the person in conflict with me would be upset and sometimes physically outraged. I would always make sure that I fully explained the situation, the policies behind my decision, and why those policies exist. Usually by the end of the conversation, the person could see the other side of the situation.

        11. How do you handle rejection?

        Rejection is part of business. People don’t always buy what you sell. The tick here is to separate rejection of your product from rejection of yourself: “I see rejection as an opportunity. I learn from it. When a customer takes a pass, I ask him what we could do to the product, price or service to make it possible for him to say yes. Don’t get me wrong: You’ve got to makes sales. But rejection is valuable, too. It’s a good teacher.”

        12.Tell me about a time when you tried and failed?

        Has this ever happened to you? No one expects perfection actually, employers are more interested in your ability to cope, to learn from mistakes, and to deal with others who are less than perfect. If you have an example, certainly pick one that happened a while back, was not earth shattering in the results, and one which you learned and applied this knowledge recently. This is a version of ‘damning with faint praise’ by picking an incident that was minor in scope but, since you are so wise and are always willing to learn, has taught you a valuable lesson.

        13.What are some of the things you find difficult to do?
        The interviewer is looking to determine how well you know yourself, how you react to difficult situations/tasks and credibility. Look back over your work experience for examples of challenges… speaking in public at a meeting, disagreeing with a manager over an important issue, being asked to use a software program you have not had an opportunity to learn… These ’stories’ should illustrate a lesson learned, a problem overcome or a weakness being dealt with. “I always seem to need a day or two to prepare myself to give a presentation to department heads. When I know I have to give a report on my projects, I plan out all the details in advance and rehearse. One time, there was a problem with a supplier and I was asked to update senior management… immediately. The supply chain was crucial to the completion of an important project we had been working on for 5 months and decisions had to be made based on the information I had to prepare and present on a moment’s notice. I gathered the information and presented it simply and in detail. It was much easier than I thought without the hours of concern and practice. The facts spoke for themselves. Since I understood the situation, I was able to make it clear to management and get a rapid decision. I still prefer advance notice but I know I can deliver when asked to.”

        14.What are your short and long term goals?

        No one can make goals for you. It comes down to where you are in your professional life and what you want to do. Most people have 5-6 careers in their working lifetime—some with 2 careers going at the same time (like us). The best advice is to be certain to relate your answers to the organization that interviews you. Do not make a point of having goals that cannot be realized there (”I want to work in Paris.” Organization is strictly domestic.) If you do your research into the organization, and into what you truly want to do in the future, you will be able to come up with reasonable responses. No one is going to come back to you in five years and chastise you for not meeting these goals! You will not be held to them… it is only an interview and they are interested in how you see yourself (and they want to see you in the job.)

        My primary objectives are to learn as much as possible about your company's product offering, organizational structure, and professional sales techniques so that I may become the most productive member of your sales team.

        What are your short-term goals?

        Many executives in a position to hire you are strong believers in goal-setting. (It's one of the reasons they've achieved so much.) They like to hire in kind.
        If you're vague about your career and personal goals, it could be a big turnoff to many people you will encounter in your job search.
        Be ready to discuss your goals for each major area of your life: career, personal development and learning, family, physical (health), community service, and (if your interviewer is clearly a religious person) you could very briefly and generally allude to your spiritual goals (showing you are a well-balanced individual with your values in the right order).
        Be prepared to describe each goal in terms of specific milestones you wish to accomplish along the way, time periods you're allotting.

        My short-term objectives are to graduate from the Professional Development Program before the standard two years and begin developing a clientele. As an intern, I prepared ahead of time by studying for the Series 7 and Series 64 exams that constitute a majority of a beginning financial consultant's time. I'd like to make make the company that hires me wonder what it ever did without me.

        15.Where do you see yourself in five years?

        This is the interviewer trying to see how you are in making long range plans and if you have goals that mesh with the organizations. One way to answer this question is to look back on your accomplishments to date: “I started out in my profession as a junior clerk while I completed my college studies during the evenings. Once I had my degree, I applied for a transfer to a more advanced position, citing my on-the-job training. This has been my pattern for my career with my past 2 employers. I learn quickly on the job and am willing to take classes and workshops to augment my experience. I have been able to assume greater responsibilities and add more value to the organization. I do not think in terms of titles… I think more in terms of “How can I solve this problem? Since this has been my career style to date, I do not imagine it to change. In five years, I feel I will have continued to learn, to grow into a position of more responsibility and will have made a significant contribution to the organization.”

        Although it is hard to predict the future, I sincerely believe that I will become a very good financial consultant. I believe that my abilities will allow me to excel to the point that I can seek other opportunities as a portfolio manager (the next step) and possibly even higher. My ultimate goal continues to be -- and will always be -- to be the best at whatever level I am working at within Merrill Lynch's corporate structure.

        16.Where do you want to become ten years from now?

        Ten years from now I see myself as a successful consultant for a world-class firm like yours. I want to have developed a wonderful bond with my employer I will have proven myself a highly competent systems analyst and will represent my company in helping others find solutions to their information-systems needs in a professional and timely manner.

        17.Would you rather work with information or with people?

        I like the validity of information and also like the energy that comes with working with people. The best thing about working in a group is combining the great minds from different perspectives and coming up with something extremely great, compared with when you're working alone. At the same time, information can generate vitality in the project you're working on. No matter how many heads you've got together, without information, you can't go very far. The perfect situation would be a combination of working with information and people, and I'm confident of my abilities in both areas.

        18.Do you have the qualifications and personal characteristics necessary for success in your chosen career?

        I believe I have a combination of qualities to be successful in this career. First, I have a strong interest, backed by a solid, well-rounded, state-of-the-art education, especially in a career that is technically oriented. This basic ingredient, backed by love of learning, problem-solving skills, well-rounded interests, determination to succeed and excel, strong communication skills, and the ability to work hard, are the most important qualities that will help me succeed in this career. To succeed, you also need a natural curiosity about how systems work -- the kind of curiosity I demonstrated when I upgraded my two computers recently. Technology is constantly changing, so you must a fast learner just to keep up or you will be overwhelmed. All of these traits combine to create a solid team member in the ever-changing field of information systems. I am convinced that I possess these characteristics and am ready to be a successful team member for your firm.

        19.What are your weak points?

        Don’t say you have one, but give one that is really a “positive in disguise.” I am sometimes impatient and do to much work myself when we are working against tight deadlines.” Or “I compliment and praise my staff, but feel I can improve.”

        20.What personal weakness has caused you the greatest difficulty in school or on the job?

        My greatest weakness had been delegation. I would take it upon myself to do many small projects throughout my shift as a manager that could have been done by others in an attempt to improve my workers' efficiency. Once I realized that I was doing more work than the other assistant managers, and they were achieving better results, I reevaluated what I was doing. I quickly realized that if I assigned each person just one small project at the beginning of their shift, clearly state expectations for the project, and then follow up that everything would get done, and I could manage much more efficiently and actually accomplish much more.

        21.How has your education prepared you for your career?

        This is a broad question and you need to focus on the behavioral examples in your educational background which specifically align to the required competencies for the career.

        An example: “My education has focused on not only the learning the fundamentals, but also on the practical application of the information learned within those classes. For example, I played a lead role in a class project where we gathered and analyzed best practice data from this industry. Let me tell you more about the results . . .”

        Focus on behavioral examples supporting the key competencies for the career. Then ask if they would like to hear more examples.

        As you will note on my resume, I've taken not only the required core classes in the _____ field, I've also gone above and beyond. I've taken every class the college has to offer in the field and also completed an independent study project specifically in this area. But it's not just taking the classes to gain academic knowledge I've taken each class, both inside and outside of my major, with this profession in mind. So when we're studying _____ in _____, I've viewed it from the perspective of _____. In addition, I've always tried to keep a practical view of how the information would apply to my job. Not just theory, but how it would actually apply. My capstone course project in my final semester involved developing a real-world model of _____, which is very similar to what might be used within your company...

        22.Have you ever had a conflict with a boss or professor? How was it resolved?

        Note that if you say no, most interviewers will keep drilling deeper to find a conflict. The key is how you behaviorally reacted to conflict and what you did to resolve it.

        For example: “Yes, I have had conflicts in the past. Never major ones, but there have been disagreements that needed to be resolved. I've found that when conflict occurs, it helps to fully understand the other person’s perspective, so I take time to listen to their point of view, and then I seek to work out a collaborative solution. For example . . .”

        Focus your answer on the behavioral process for resolving the conflict and working collaboratively.

        23.If I were to ask your professors to describe you, what would they say?

        This is a threat of reference check question. Do not wait for the interview to know the answer. Ask any prior bosses or professors in advance. And if they’re willing to provide a positive reference, ask them for a letter of recommendation.

        Then you can answer the question like this:
        “I believe she would say I'm a very energetic person, that I’m results oriented and one of the best people she has ever worked with. Actually, I know she would say that, because those are her very words. May I show you her letter of recommendation?”

        So be prepared in advance with your letters of recommendation.

        24.Tell me about a time when you had to plan and coordinate a project from start to finish.

        I headed up a project which involved customer service personnel and technicians. I organized a meeting to get everyone together to brainstorm and get his or her input. From this meeting I drew up a plan, taking the best of the ideas. I organized teams, balancing the mixture of technical and non-technical people. We had a deadline to meet, so I did periodic checks with the teams. After three weeks, we were exceeding expectations, and were able to begin implementation of the plan. It was a great team effort, and a big success. I was commended by management for my leadership, but I was most proud of the team spirit and cooperation which it took to pull it off.

        25.Describe a situation where others you were working with on a project disagreed with your ideas. What did you do?

        I was on a project team in a business class in my freshman year in college, The group brainstormed ideas for the video we were assigned to produce, and everyone but me was leaning toward an idea that would be easy. I suggested instead an idea that would be more difficult but would be something different that no other group would be doing. I used my communications skills to persuade the rest of the group to use my idea. During the project, we really learned what teamwork was all about, became a close team, and ended up putting a lot of hard work into the project. All the team members ended up feeling very proud of the video, and they thanked me for the idea -- for which we earned an A.

        26.Why did you choose to attend your college?

        My college has always had a reputation as having an excellent accounting department, so I knew that if I enrolled there, I would achieve first-class preparation for my chosen career field. It is also a highly accredited school known for satisfying employers with the preparation of its graduates -- that's why companies like yours recruit at my school -- the school produces top graduates. The school offers an excellent liberal-arts background, which research shows equips graduates with numerous qualities, such as versatility and strong critical-thinking skills. Finally, having visited the campus before enrolling, I knew that the business school emphasized group projects. During my four years in the school, I participated in more than 35 group projects, which taught me invaluable teamwork, communication, and interpersonal skills.

        27.What changes would you make at your college?

        My major department had a wonderful internship program, and I was able to complete three valuable internships with my department's guidance. Some other departments in the business school don't have internship programs that are as strong as my department's. I'd like to see all the departments have strong internship programs so all my school's business grads would have the same opportunities that I had.

        28.How will the academic program and coursework you've taken benefit your career?

        As you will note on my resume, I've taken not only the required core classes for the finance field, I've also gone above and beyond by double majoring in accounting. I doubled majored since I knew that the financial consulting field requires much knowledge of portfolio analysis and understanding of the tax laws. I believe that my success in both areas of study have specifically prepared me for this area. But it's not just taking the classes in these two areas that allow me to offer Merrill Lynch clients more. I minored in Spanish to understand the growing Hispanic clientele in the Central Florida area, which as you are well aware, is a growing source of revenue for the industry. If you like, I can elaborate on other aspects of my education further.

        29.What were your favorite classes? Why?

        My favorite classes have been the ones pertaining to my major, which is marketing. These classes have laid the groundwork for my career in marketing. They have also taught me skills that I can bring to my employer, ranging from communication skills to interacting with others.

        30. Do you enjoy doing independent research?
        Are you the type of student for whom conducting independent research has been a positive experience?

        Yes, I love it. I thoroughly enjoyed my senior research in college while many others in my class were miserable. I was never tired of learning more about my topic and found it exhilarating to be researching something that had not been studied before.

        31.Who were your favorite professors? Why? Describe the type of professor that has created the most beneficial learning experience for you.

        My favorite professors were the ones who gave me hands-on learning experiences that I can apply to my career. Any person can make you memorize the quadratic equation, but someone who can show you how to use it, and why, were the professors I liked. I liked teachers who realized that sometimes there is more then one answer and everyone thinks differently.

        32.Why is your GPA not higher? Do you think that your grades are a indication of your academic achievement?

        I have focused much of my energy on work and obtaining real-world experience. I commend my classmates who have earned high GPAs, but I also feel it's important to be well-rounded. In addition to work experience, I participated in sports and extracurricular activities in school. These activities taught me leadership, communication, and teamwork skills. Sometimes my heavy load has not allowed me to keep up with some of my studies, but I have learned an enormous amount that I can apply in my future industry. As you will discover if you talk to my supervisors, my ability to work effectively is much more reflective of my future potential than is my GPA.

        33.Do you have any plans for further education? What plans do you have for continued study? An advanced degree?

        I plan to continue my education for the rest of my life. In any technology-related field, keeping up to date through continuing education is of the utmost importance. Continuing education can include on-the-job training, courses sponsored by the employer, and courses taken in new technologies as they emerge. I plan to be not only a career employee but a career student so that I can be the best information systems analyst I can be. I will ensure, however, that any education I pursue not only doesn't interfere with my job or the company's policies, but will enhance my value as an employee.

        34.Give an example of how you applied knowledge from previous coursework to a project in another class.

        Last semester I was taking a microeconomics and a statistics course. One of the microeconomics projects dealt with showing the relationship between the probability that customers would stop buying a product if the price was raised a certain amount. Through what I learned in statistics I could find the median where the price was the highest and still kept most of the customers happy.

        35. Describe a situation in which you found that your results were not up to your professor's or supervisor's expectations. What happened? What action did you take?

        Recently I was asked to put together a proposal for a migration of network systems. Misunderstanding my boss, I thought it was just an informal paper. When I presented it to him days later, he was upset with the quality since it had to be presented to our VP. I explained my misunderstanding, apologized, reworked the paper, and had it back to him with enough time for him to review it before he presented it successfully at the meeting

        36.What do you know about our organization?

        Research the target company before the interview. Basic research is the only way to prepare for this question. Do your homework, and you’ll score big on this question. Talk about products, services, history and people, especially any friends that work there. “But I would love to know more, particularly from your point of view. Do we have time to cover that now?

        This question is one reason to do some research on the organization before the interview. Find out where they have been and where they are going. What are the current issues and who are the major players?

        37.What experience do you have?

        Try to cite experience relevant to the company’s concerns. Also, try answering these questions with a question: “Are you looking for overall experience or experience in some specific area of special interest to you?” Let the interviewer’s response guide your answer.

        What experience do you have in this field? Speak about specifics that relate to the position you are applying for. If you do not have specific experience, get as close as you can.

        I think I have my current job because of my experiences abroad. Those experiences gave me greater self-confidence and a greater understanding of myself, which led to my willingness to uproot myself and try new work in a new location.”

        38.According to your definition of success, how successful have you been so far?

        Be prepared to define success, and then respond (consistent record of responsibility)
        You should always answer yes and briefly explain why. A good explanation is that you have set goals, and you have met some and are on track to achieve the others.

        39. How has your college experience prepared you for a business career?

        Emphasize your best and favorite subjects. If grades were average, talk about leadership or jobs you took to finance your education. Talk about extra-curricular activities (clubs, sports, volunteer work)

        I have prepared myself to transition into the the work force through real-world experience involving travel abroad, internship, and entrepreneurial opportunities. While interning with a private organization in Ecuador, I developed a 15-page marketing plan composed in Spanish that recommended more effective ways the company could promote its services. I also traveled abroad on two other occasions in which I researched the indigenous culture of the Mayan Indians in Todos Santos, Guatemala, and participate din a total language immersion program in Costa Rica. As you can see from my academic, extracurricular, and experiential background, I have unconditionally committed myself to success as a marketing professional.

        40.What do you look for in a job?

        Flip this one over. Despite the question, the employer isn’t really interested in what you are looking for. He’s interested in what he is looking for. Address his interests, rather than yours. Use words like “contribute,” “enhance,” “improve,” and “team environment.” Fit your answer to their needs Relate your preferences and satisfiers/dissatisfiers to the job opening.更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
        • Behavioural questions万变不离其宗 #3282775@0
      • 面试者的经验。 口述:Toysrus(没劲),录入:3721(过路人) 谢谢两位。#2715398@0
      • 加拿大新移民财务分析师求职全经历 - BY 糖兜兜 +1
      • 专业简历实践篇
      • 870和3750Co-op揭密 870和3750Co-op揭密
        什么是 870 学校?


        870和3750其实是一个成人教育学校,全称是Dufferin-Peel Adult Learning Centres。这个学校有两个校区,一个坐落在870 Queen St. West, Mississauga,另一个在3750 Brandon Gate Dr. Mississauga。网友们根据这两个校区的地址将其简称为870和3750学校。那么为什么网友们对这所学校这么感兴趣呢?这是因为这所学校是 GTA地区最好的Co-op学校之一,它提供的Co-op program为受过国外专业培训但没有加拿大工作经验的新移民朋友寻找3个月的Co-op placement来获得实际加拿大工作经验,以此帮助这些朋友顺利进入加拿大Professional Job Market。根据学校的统计,80%的学生通过它的program找到了真正的专业工作。由于它的高成功率,在新移民朋友中口口相传,几乎成了Co- op的代名词。

        本人作为这个program的受益者,决定做这样的一个网站,对这个学校以及这个program做一个比较系统的介绍,希望能够对还在为找Professional Job而苦苦奋斗的新移民朋友有所帮助。

      • CIBC: Equity Research Interview Experience
      • Investment Banking Interview Experience with RBC, TD, BMO, CIBC, Scotia, Genuity +1
      • 面试”忽悠”术 +1
      • 金融职业介绍普及版[转贴]
      • panel interview
      • Typical question you can ask interviewer--FYR
      • 银行,证券行业入门职业发展参考 +1
      • 关于中国经验, 坦荡的态度能够帮助我们.
    • 学习, 证书与考试 +2
      • US CPA - 美国注册会计师
      • 加拿大CMA (Certified Management Accountant) - 职业,年薪,评估,考试 +4
      • CGA – 学习,工作经验和其它 +1
      • CGA – 学习,工作经验和其它 (2) +3
      • 加拿大财会行业CA CMA CGA, CFA CISA CIA (修改中) +1
      • 谈谈CA 考试 谈谈CA 考试
        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛请一位潜水MN写的, 只好用我的ID贴了.

        在参加CA考试之前, 需要有足够的课程Credit, 这些课程Credit可以在安省各大大学修读, 具体细节可在ICAO网站上查询. 另外一个条件时, 你必须是注册的CA学生, 这也就是说, 你需要已在某间CA事务所实习.

        CA考试本身分三级, CKE(Cumulative Knowledge Exam), SOA(School of Accounting ) UFE(Unified Final Exam), CKE在每年一月或四月进行, SOA 为六月, UFE为九月, 如果一切顺利的话, 一年之内可完成所有考试.

        不同的人对这三级考试的难易程度有不同的感觉, 下面就谈谈我自身的经验.

        CKE考试大约四个小时, 全部是单项选择题, 主要考查审计, 会计等各方面的基础知识, 这个考试对我来说是最容易的, 我觉得这个考试对中国学生来说一般都是最容易的. 因为我们从小做过不计其数的选择题, 至少具备对付选择题的一定技巧. 同时, 中国学生的基础知识一般是比较扎实的.

        SOA就开始写Case了, 但SOA的Case相对简单. 一共大概四个Case,长度都差不多, 相关审计, 会计,金融, 税务Organizational effectiveness, 方面的知识都会考到. 写Case学要一定的实践经验, 也就是说你需要通过实践找到自己的强项和弱项, 然后在逐个应对, ICAO网站上有前几年的试题及答案. 在准备时, 应该至少把所有的Case都写一遍. 更重要的是, 写完之后要根据答案进行解析和总结. 只有通过解析和总结, 才能不断进步, 找到写Case的技巧.

        UFE我认为是最难得, 同样是写Case, 但其实Case相对较难, 隐藏在其中的Issue有时不是那麽容易被看出来, 尤其在时间很近紧的情况下. 这个考试一共三天, 头一天是一个大的综合Case, 后两天分别是几个小Case, 但是这个考试的优点是, 如果第一天发挥不好, 还有两天可以赶上. 最重要的是保持冷静和清醒的头脑, 这个考试对每个人都是个很大的挑战,

        <本文发表于: 相约加拿大:枫下论坛 www.rolia.net/forum >更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
      • 我所知道的Payroll Certifications +3
      • 作为毕业生,关于BROCK的会计硕士 +1
      • 英语听力和写作自我训练--我的一点心得--by goingconern +4
      • 英文八股文的格式
      • communication, presentation and social skills. +1
      • University of Waterloo的Master of Tax
      • 轻松通过CGA PA1 ——写给被PA1折磨的日夜不能入睡的兄弟姐妹们 +1
      • CMA最新评估,考试指南 +1
      • 浅谈CKE考试
      • 一次通过PA1&PA2经验谈 +1
      • SOA考试心得
      • MY CA experience PART I +2
      • UFE准备小小体会。。给没有本地学历的同行。
    • 行业交流 +1
      • 我所知道的Fund Accountant
      • 写一些我的经历Fund accounting/investment accounting之一
      • 写一些我的经历Fund accounting/investment accounting之二
      • My 2 cents of Costing Analyst
      • How to be a great financial analyst: it takes seven key skills and a new way of thinking. (ZT)
      • 内部审计师 内部审计师
        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛by 649love (明天) at 2008.6.14 11:42 (#17045@41)

        应版主要求,上来写一篇介绍内部审计师的文章。来加拿大之前,我做过两年半的外部审计师(Andersen/PwC), 一年私企制造业的财务经理。来加后读了一个MBA,然后在保险公司做内部审计。最近刚转到同一公司的投资部门做credit analysis。虽然我干内审的时间不长(1年半),但非常喜欢这段经历,愿意跟大家分享我自己的一些心得体会和经验。下文是我的一家之言,不一定完全准确,仅供大家参考。也欢迎同行的朋友补充和修正。

        Certified Internal Auditor (CIA)资格证书
        大家都知道在加拿大找专业工作,有相关认可的资格证书是非常重要的一个前提。 CIA是国际认可,从事内部审计的资格证书。相比于其他财务会计方面的资格证书,CIA性价比高,容易获得。我自己没有考过CMA,CGA, CA什么的,但周围考这些证的朋友不少。难不难考我不知道,只是感觉时间耗费太长,好像费用也挺高。但是,CIA考试对于有过相关工作经验的人来说,应该是非常容易的。考题倾向于实用型,如果从事过相关工作,通过考试一点儿也不难。考试通过后,有两年相关工作经历(国内工作也认可)就可以拿到证书。考试一共有4科,可以自由选择每次考试考几科以及考哪几科。如果有CA,CPA,(包括国内的CPA)等证书,可以免试第4科。我自己是一次考3科 (第4科免考),然后一次通过。总共花了一个月的时间准备,而且是白天上班晚上看书的那种。因为考试真的很容易。而且前三科,相互之间重复的内容非常多,一次性考反而省事。考试费用也很低,好像总共考下来加复习资料也就几百加币。(现在有没有变化我就不确定了)我那个时候,每年考试时间只有5月和11月两次。好像现在改为机考,考试时间应该更灵活。具体情况大家可以上网站查询:http://www.theiia.org/certification/certified-internal-auditor/。 所以我个人认为,对于在国内有过一定财务或审计经验刚来加拿大希望能尽快找到工作的新移民来说,从事内部审计工作应该是比较快速的一个就业通道。

        Department of Internal Audit
        内审部门的编制在不同的行业,不同的公司有很大的差别。一般来说,金融保险行业对公司内部风险控制非常重视,内审是一个独立部门,权限大,范围广,工作比较有挑战性。相对来说传统制造行业或规模比较小的企业对内控重视程度不高,内审部门比较小,或就只是在Accounting Department 下设置一个内审职位。工作范围有限,通常做SOX相关工作,比较无聊。

        Job Accountability

        Job Qualification Requirements
        1. 相关资格证书: GMA, CGA, CA, CPA, CIA…只要有其中一个就够。Again,在所有证书中,我认为CIA 是最容易拿到的。
        2. Analytic skill -- 需要对审计内容进行分析,找到风险点,评估控制程序,提出合理建议。
        3. Project management skill -- 审计通常按项目进行。有时候同一时间会有几个项目在同时开展,需要有好的时间管理和项目控制能力。
        4. Team building and team work skill -- 这个就不用多解释了。根据项目不同,有时候是自己一个人做,有时候是一个组。
        5. Self-learning and quick learning skill -- 每一个项目都可能是全新的东西,需要很短时间内去理解学习审计对象相关的知识,才可以有效和client 沟通,执行审计程序。
        6. Strong communication skills both verbal and written -- 这个很重要。审计过程中要跟不同部门不同员工打交道,从他们那里获取支持和信息。工作中有很多working paper 需要记录,还需要最后出具审计报告。而且,通常在审计初期和最后阶段,需要跟公司高层领导进行沟通和交流。有时候可能还会做presentation。这一项要求可能对中国人来说是最大的挑战。但个人认为,这个难度也不是高不可攀。只是需要你比别的local同事多花时间在准备client meeting, report writing 上。但面试的时候,一定要花很大功夫去展示你具备这方面的能力
        7. xx years of audit and/or financial experience -- 这一点不是绝对的,而因公司而异。一般来说,如果从事财务审计,审计经验的要求比较严格;但如果是经营审计,有没有过审计经验就不那么重要了。我们部门,以前从事什么工作的都有,关键看你有没有business understanding and analytic skill。如果你以前从事的是相关行业其他的部门工作,对于做审计来说是优势,因为你可以更好了解你的审计对象。

        1. 内审工作接触到公司的各层面各部门,对公司的具体营运可以有很全面的了结和接触。
        2. 并且每次所审计的项目不同,每一个项目都有新的挑战和学习的机会。不会无聊!
        3. 有很好的机会转做其它工作:我部门大部分人在工作一段时间后,都转到公司的其他部门从事其它工作。在审计中对公司其他部门的了解和客户关系的建立对于转去其他部门工作有很大帮助。我自己就是在内审做一年半后,转去投资部工作。
        4. 工作生活的balance 比较好,没有外部审计师那样辛苦,也不经常出差。(当然,这一点也是因公司而异)

        1. 工作进度不是自己能控制,需要客户配合。遇到tough client, 有时候会很 frustrated.
        2. 如果是在对内审不重视的公司,或非公司总部做审计,工作很可能就是 routinely update pre-years’ working paper, 会很无聊。
        3. 有的公司,内审也需要经常出差。

        待遇 -- 因为我没有从事过其他财会方面的工作,不知道跟其他职位相比如何,但有一定工作年限后,年薪10万以上的内审工作机会也不算少。
        前景 -- 我个人很看好内审工作的前景。公司加强风险控制内部监管是发展的趋势,对内审人员的需求只是会越来越多。两年前,我找工作的时候,关于内审招聘的posting很多,还有很多contract 的机会。而且,我在国内做内审工作的朋友同事都觉着job market 不错,老有猎头找上门推荐工作,待遇给得也很好。所以,如果将来打算回国,有这边内审经历,回国工作也应该不用愁。



        1. 关于换工作

        2。关于Internal Audit 分类
        财务审计和经营审计只是通常说的内审的两个大方向。根据行业,公司不同,内审部门下面还会分不同的segment。如我公司,IT audit, Investment Audit, Corporate Audit 都有不同的team来做。除此之外,还有两个Audit teams是按公司的individual Insurance and Group Insurance两个business lines 来分的。但这些都被统称在经营审计范围内。我公司的内审是不做财务审计的,sox也是由财务会计部门下的一个小分组来做。但在一些小的公司,可能分类上就不会这么细,内审师就需要IT, Finance, Operation全方位接触了。

        3。IT Audit
        因为我不做,知道不多。我公司很多IT Auditor 都有IT相关从业背景。他们会有自己专门的IT审计项目,同时,我们其他组在审计中涉及到IT相关内容,他们会给予支持和帮助。

        4。Credit Analysis
        刚转去新岗位,详细介绍不了,自己还在了解过程中。关于待遇,跟我做auditor差不多,只是bonus会高一些,只是因为投资部门的bonus比例是全公司最高的。至于年薪百万,估计要“特级人才”才可以拿到,我是不报任何奢想的。 :-)更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
      • The Role of Corporate Accountant
      • Month End Closing
        • Month End Closing Process - 补充篇 Month End Closing Process - 补充篇 +1
          本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛I. by lastdayofschool (Pokmon Ranger)

          As “discussion is highly expected”, I add some points to the closing process
          and share my personal experience with XDJM who are in need. 请toysrus 等
          经验丰富的大虾们轻松一笑, 不要放过我的不足之处。:)

          0. Facilitation of month end reporting

          “Since the business runs in a dynamic environment”, particularly when
          the team faces situations like changing work force or increased business
          activities, I would treat monthly financial reporting process as a mini-project.
          It seems to be more efficient to send out the modified document with milestones
          to team members and other parties who provide you backup information several
          working days before the month-end. Using MS Project or other tool(s) could
          help teammates to report work progress and give feedback to each other.
          It helps if you have team member not based in head office.

          1. Payroll

          On monthly basis, payroll administrator may also administrate, reconcile,
          journal-enter other remittance items including WCB, employee RRSP, employee
          stock purchase plan, etc. If a company has manufacturing function, another
          pro-core closing activity is production bonus calculation (workers wouldn’
          t be energetic next month without bonus paid).

          2. Invoicing

          If you have consignment with the third parties, “comparing shipments to
          invoices” becomes a heavy role. Most likely you need to work with inventory
          personnel and corresponding sales representative on this task.

          3. Payable

          Some companies have corporate credit card payables, cash payables to directors
          and employees and other non-trade payables. Carefully schedule the timelines
          of closing off these accounts to eliminate the waiting period.

          4. Inventory

          Cost accountants may write a book for you on how to close off inventory.
          Which industry you work in and what systems you use determine the workload
          of inventory close. In manufacturing and other industries that could carry
          large amount of physical inventory, financial reporting facilitator usually
          plans an extra day or more on inventory close. Physical inventory count specialists
          might give you a hand to improve efficiency.

          5. General Ledger
          Addition: update/adjust accounts such as financial instruments and equity

          II. by 7y7 (醉里吴音)

          补充几点: 我的month end closing tasks 是在以上7点之后才开始的, 算是故事的

          我的职责本是Decision support, 基本不参与月底结算. However, corporate requested
          additional information since mergers & acquisitions. I'm familiar with ERP
          data flow and report writing since I have been heavily involved in the implementations.
          So, I ended up with designing and maintaining some temporary to long term
          solutions during month end reporting. (很抱歉, 本来习惯尽量在中文论坛用中
          文, 但是谈到工作很多词不知怎么翻译才好, 只能夹花着胡说了)

          背景: 国际企业, Canadian Corporate finance, 基本就是个夹心饼干, 一边close
          local book, 一边prepare month end reporting package to corporate. 前辈把
          close local book部分说的很清楚了, 我就写一点后半部工作.

          - 因为公司行业特征和总部在欧洲, 我们出好几套报表: 1- local legal book, 2-
          local managerial reports, 3- IFRS reporting (corporate legal book), 4- Business
          warehouse (corporate managerial reports).

          -- 1- local legal book基本上就是G/L, 数据多而结构简单, 是一切报表的出发点
          . 基本是accounting group负责.

          -- 2- local managerial reports根据加拿大内部管理部门随时调整, 尤其是Sales几
          乎一年一个重组, 搞得我们在后面狂奔改ERP structure / reports不说, 还要保证
          调整后的数据和G/L reconcile, 这是我月底工作的第一步.

          -- 3- IFRS reporting, 公司总部对各部门, 各种费用的定义另有一套规定, 还涉
          及一些internal allocation, inter-company adjustment, 这部分在SAP的另一个
          COPA module里做, 数据来源最复杂, 出了问题如大海捞针, 这是我月底工作的另一
          个重要内容. 我很幸运, 从头到底参与了SAP implementation, 对数据结构比较了
          解且有充分access调数据, 每月基本能把数据对齐(IFRS也是legal reporting, 非
          对齐不可). 有朋友公司SAP技术支持外包, 内部super user 能用的功能很少, COPA没
          有一个月能reconcile的, 因为用做managerial reporting数字差一点高层并不太介
          意, 但对一个负责任的FA来说就很难受了, 真真是无语凝噎...

          这一部分报上去, 如果不被打回来修改, 加拿大的G/L才算真正close了.

          -- 4- Business warehouse, 是corporate的managerial reporting tool. 因为legal
          reporting 时间很紧, 不可能包括太多细节, 通常只汇报1 set of data. BW则是个
          大型数据库, multidimensional (货币, 产品, 市场, 大区, 各种费用, etc), 因
          为是供高层决策用, 各种费用的定义又和上面各不相同, 只关心和产品直接有关的
          费用. 要把这套报表跟前几者reconcile, 也是件人仰马翻的活.

          - 伺候完上面的头头, 接下来伺候本地头头: 出Executive reporting package给VP
          & CEO, managerial reporting package 给各中小头头. 很多时候把报表递到他们
          鼻子底下都懒得看, 有时(通常是年底)忽然发现有完不成预算危险, 一群人抓着财
          务要求最新报表. 这一块是我的正职, 帮助各部门经理理解财务数据, 也努力理解
          他们的business case, 理解数字后的故事乃至政治斗争, 是件很有趣的事情.更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
      • Business Economic & Staff Performance KPI
      • CA - 我在四大6年的审计生涯 (By kaiwanxiao(joker)) CA - 我在四大6年的审计生涯 (By kaiwanxiao(joker)) +1
        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛早就想感慨一下,可码字不容易。抬笔千言,落笔无语..忙季没时间,不忙的时候忙着玩,就耽误了。最近10年,写的中国字不超过1000吧,还包括买菜的购物清单。词不达义难免的,如有显摆之处,绝非有义, 大家包涵


        面试 - Campus recruiting
        谁说高分没用?四大筛人给面世主要看成绩,俺面的时候平均分差点A+.至于面试技巧,参加77文集. (审计常用语言 NFWP: no further work performed)
        面试两轮,第一轮俩 manager/senior manager 主要问 behavior questions. 晚上有饭局.比较让人头疼,不知道说啥。光忙着考高分了,电视看的少。经老公提醒,决定主攻吃和旅游方面。(足以见得本人情趣不够高雅).生词少,本人感兴趣。还别说,面偶的也对此感兴趣,中间穿差背来的小笑话.于是宾主言谈甚欢。又过一关. 第2轮,见 partner , 聊天为主。
        现在面试缩成一轮, 有时候听说partner 直接上.

        面世过后大约在11月底拿到offer.一年后开始上班。 年薪比较低。(四大通常比

        第一年-全职上班加全职考试 SA 1- Staff accountant 1
        有人开玩笑说,第一年会用复印机就行了。不会用复印机还真不行,不过光会用复印机也不行。……….还得会发传真. 开玩笑了。第一年作比较低级的工作很正常。没经验呀,谁敢把 Financial instruments 给你作?常作的 testing includes: test of internal controls, audit balances of Cash, AR, Fixed assets, prepaids, Equity, Long term debt. payroll and certain operating expenses etc.
        还有就是听人使唤,senior 说,把这复印了,把这发传真,你就屁巅屁巅的去.
        其实能学的要学的东西还是很多的。第一年,你可以问任何你不懂的问题,从 audit approach, testing method, best practice to HB sections。 大家都乐意回答而且还会夸你是个爱学习,肯动脑的好孩子。第二年就要小心了,什么该问,什么自己查资料。否则别人会说你 technical not strong. 这是后来有资格参加年评(被我称之为审判大会), 观察来的. 切记切记.

        第一年上班,客户五花八门。From manufacturing , financial institutions, to NPO. Did a lot of travel as well. 总觉着招聘的时候应加一条 requirement:会开车,还要有车。 在GTA可能除外. 那会刚学会开车不久,也没GPS。老公不放心。每到一个新客户,去40分钟以内的地方,老公都是头天晚上带我开一遍,怕我开丢了。对此要大大表扬一下老公。他在我整个的会计生涯中起着不可或缺的作用。从面试,到考试,到重大的决定该说到UFE考试了. 安省考CA分几步:
        1. university degree.
        2 51 credits.
        3 hired by a recognized CA firm/organization.
        If you meet all of above, congratulations, now you are qualified to take the exams. ( U of waterloo master program students can skip the first two exams)
        1 CKE, 4 hours. 100? Or 150? multiple choice questions, cover financial accounting, management accounting, taxation, certain IT stuff. professional conduct, etc. Held twice a year, one in Jan one in May. If you fail the Jan one you can take again in May.
        2. if you pass the CKE, you can go to summer school held in York university in July for 2 and a half weeks. It is a full time study period. By the end of the summer school, you need to write an 4-hour exam , 3 cases. 是不是所有的school都和考试分不开呢?
        You can take the CICA hand book with you.
        3. If you pass the Summer school, then next exam is waiting for you at the corner, it is called UFE. 考试历时3天,第一天5个小时,第二,三天各4个小时。每天都是case. 第一天比较过分,一道题。我考那年,光 case factor 就15页纸。 读题就得20分钟.因为我那会儿答题还是手写,要在纸上编号,否则会串,不知道哪页挨哪页,所以我记得第一天我的答案有58页. Of course, double spaced. 怕判卷的眼花.
        Now it is pretty much computerized. Which means candidates can write some novel in these 5 good hours.

        说说考试的培训。四大都提供考前辅导,都是请专业的培训公司来作。不过占用你的休息时间。还有各种IN HOUSE training,mock exam.你还会有一个mentor,通常是去年刚考过的,主要是给你判卷子。所以资源信息都大把。只要你努力,通常考过没问题。

        来描述一下非忙季的A1一天: 上班一天要求7.5 chargeable hours.就从来没听说过有午休这一说。通常10分钟搞定午饭。下了班,大约在5.30 左右。开车从客户那回公司,作cke 考题,2-3小时,晚饭公司通常给订pizza. 晚上大约8点半才离开办公室。周六和周日通常都有培训,多是一整天,还在别的城市。

        一年的辛苦, 最大的回报是考过UFE. 至今对发成绩当天记忆犹新。那天公司给假。头一天晚上,所有考试的加上 mentors去喝了一通。这是传统节目,公司买单。小醉。睡到第二天10点。起床后,无所事是,于是大搞爱国卫生运动,把家里擦了个窗明几净,以此排解压力。公司有专人负责通知考试结果。我可以选择通过: 电话,电邮或留言。咱没那勇气使用电话通知,外一不过,。。。,于是选择了电邮。打扫完卫生,11.40。看看差不多了。(12点发成绩)就想上网查查,网上也公布的。可是居然家里的网就偏偏坏掉了,不信邪都不行,折腾了10分钟,放弃了。于是坐立不安。拿着电话游走在各个房间。正这时候电话响了,正纳闷,也没选电话通知呀,接起来一听,是老公,没问候语,就直接一句,你过了。我还挺纳闷,问你真的假的?后来得知他老人家从上班就盯着ICAO website,刷了一上午。在第一时间通知我的. 感情有人比我还紧张呀。后来LD解释为,希望我快过吧,不想再去图书馆啦.
        下午打了2个小时电话。去做了头发。发成绩当天晚上公司就有大的庆祝活动。先是在公司吃大餐,partners祝酒。然后转战去酒吧。当天喝到脚软,半夜2点被LD扶回家,第二天一天没起来床。真的是值得庆祝的事情。从此一辈子都再也再也不用考 UFE.

        作为通过考试的奖励,公司发奖金若干,转身给老公买了一当年正流行的PS2。发了俩刻着名字加ca 的笔。一起和partner们去饭店搓了一顿。最后为庆祝活动画上圆满句号的是ICAO的盛大舞会。之所以称之盛大是因为人数过千,俊男美女们都盛装出席,燕尾服,曳地长裙。香槟,美食,流行乐队的现场表演。恍惚间让人觉得不太真实。象在电影里.

        考过考试的兴奋劲儿,很快就过了。然后你就会发现,CA 在四大里满地都是,还真没谁没有。而且很快第二个忙季来了。


        当第二个忙季来临的时候你以为准备好了,那就错了。当一个又一个披戴月的日子没完没了的时候,当几乎是整个冬天都看不见日出和日落的时候,人就到了接近崩溃的边缘。当你觉得再这样下去多一天就要辞职的时候,忙季结束啦。对于审计来说,1月到3月中旬是最痛苦的时间。公司明文规定每天billable hour 最少10小时。碰到deadline紧的,周末全加班也不稀奇。千万别耍小聪明找借口不加班,manager 的眼睛是雪亮的。不想年终被评为差,就乖乖的,任劳任怨的超时工作吧,谁让你上了贼船哪。所以好多四大的一等到ca 到手就迫不及待的跳槽了. 每年夏天辞职的都很多,近一两年更是盛况空前。不想熬到partner 的都会在有好机会的时候好不犹豫的和firm byebye.那多少年可以升职哪。大致作4-5年,可以升manager,再过3-4年升 senior manager, 当然前提是工作绩效要好,之后5-n年看机遇会有可能升 partner。我也见过作senior manager 直到退休的。如果你真的脑力,体力,毅力超人,那不妨一试。

        我看就先说说好的吧。 工资: 基本上能做到头5-6年翻一翻。最少涨80% 肯定有了。当了partner就神气了。据说第一年也二十多万。当了manager之后,时间上有了一定自由,没人成天盯着你几点上班和下班。就是说你可以自由加班到深夜了,开个玩笑。firm的福利也不错。

        说辛辛苦苦两年, 爬上了senior 的位置,恭喜了,加班时间是更长了。有时候,俩 manager/ senior manager 一起找你作事,得罪谁也不成,那就只好牺牲自己了。 好处是你有点小权 了,可以吆喝别人了。senior 的责任就是带着junior team members 到客户那,做 field audit。 之前要 planning, do some review of junior’s work, 之后要 wrap up file. You must be technical strong enough to answer junior’s questions and able to identify risky issue to report to upper level.
        这时候沟通就及其重要了(其实 communication 什么时候都重要。)因为 manager 有可能同时有多于一个的客户. 你就要不厌其烦的每天给 update. 有人说老外单纯没什么办公室政治,那我得说,你要么还没碰到,要么是被他们的表面功夫给蒙了。千瓦别以为那个天天微笑着和你打招呼,时常开个小玩笑的领导上级是吃素的. 每年的年评就向批判大会,要是你没给哪个 senior/ manager/senior manager 伺候好,你等着秋后算账吧. 老外批评起来那是真不留情面。最差的是,一但有人开头说你不好,就会有人附和。相反要是有人力挺你好,超乎寻常的好,其他人虽然不太会附和但也不会说你不好。所以第一个给意见的人的基调很重要。 和 manager/senior manager 个人关系好有用吗,太有用了。一句话,有人的地方就有政治,你在中国见到的这儿都有。
        如果有幸被提到 manager 其实对个人的眼界还是大有的提高. 现在你直接向 partner 汇报,客户联系从 AR, AP, Accountant, 一下跃到 Controller, VP, CFO. 能被 partner 带着参加个董事会啥的. 个人对时间的支配度也大多了。至于 senior manager’s life, I don’t know.
        总有人问,四大起薪那么低,干活又累,为啥都还削尖脑袋的要进。一是名气,为以后跳槽打基础,二是开眼界;三吗,升的快。熬一定年限工资就和 industry 相差无几了. 其实,过了冬天的忙季,夏天还是满舒服的,公司有各种培训,好吃好喝,工作时间正常。关键是要熬得过忙季。
        <本文发表于: 相约加拿大:枫下论坛 www.rolia.net/forum >更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
      • 10 Survival Tips for People Work in Big 4 - by goingconern (GoingConcern)
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      • CPA Forum CPA Forum
        If you are preparing CPA exam, this forum has all the information you will need for the exam
        by buickregal (In the home stretch) at 2008.2.11 15:46 (#10090@41)
        People all over the world are sharing with and helping each other. Normally people answer your question very quick. Real questions are posted there sometimes.

        If you are too busy and want to learn by yourself, it is the most valuable place you want to go.
      • Some useful websites for Financial Modeling +1
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        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛前些天这里有讨论G/L & Sub system reconciliation 的好帖子,最后的结论是 “月末结账首先需要了解 business process 和数据是如何转换的”,否则大家 “会忙出一身大汗”。那么在古代, 没有ERP, 又有G/L,二级三级帐, 大家又是如何减少出大汗的次数呢?从这里说起。



        特大办公间,几十号人,木头地板踩上去嘎吱嘎吱地响,只听得上下一片打算盘的声音,后来出现了卡西欧计算器。每个人按资历长短,分工负责总帐(GL)或各级明细帐(sub-ledger)。GL-LOG放在前面方桌上, 如果你需要用一个number, 就跑上去签划一下。


        大家的帐总算都平了,那么如何 lock the month呢?

        方法就和同学们常用的“定帖”法有异曲同工之美: 就是把 ending balance那个数字用tape封上。



        Yes or No

        一般来说,那时候只要管人事的女头头用她的雷达眼睛扫你三五下,相面就过关了,不需要死记硬背S&W的答案。可你也失去了炒老板的自由。十年几十年和同一办公室的同仁和睦相处不是一件容易的事情。那天我参考了一下Joyce 同学的 5 Ss, 发现这五条在古代都能用上。

        - Excellent organizational skills
        没有super organizational skills, 在纯手工业操作的前提下,是无法按时完成结转的。

        - Strong problem solving and analytical skills
        如果有DR/CR不平衡的状态,need strong problem solving skills.
        做预算和执行,同样需要 analytical skills

        - Able to work under pressure and meet tight deadlines

        - Highly motivated and desire to learn
        工具上从算盘到计算器到电脑,方法上从老苏到西方,没有motivation 还能做下去吗?

        - Good interpersonal and communication skills
        上对总帐老太太,下对车间小统计,没有 good communication skills, 按时完成工作十分困难。



        …直接到未来…Midnight, December 31, 2010
        上半夜做 Beginning balance for Year 2011,下半夜做 comparatives for Year 2010
        上半夜带近视镜, 下半夜带老花镜…




        o “缺乏加拿大会计经验却到处宣称是CGA,一来就要找SENIOR JOB”


        对于在中国学完CGA或者其他方法转成CGA的朋友,在加拿大经验这件事情上遇到障碍,有很多种原因。我只想单独列举在企业做reporting为例子。未来雇主关心的是你是否熟悉Canadian GAAP (或者是进行时的IFRS),以及在该行业的运?而你更熟悉的是其他GAAP或者当时学CGA时的加版老GAAP.





        Thanks.更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
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      • 职位职责Consolidation, Intercompany-reconciliation, Prepare note disclosure.问答 职位职责Consolidation, Intercompany-reconciliation, Prepare note disclosure.问答
        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛职位. 主要职责是Consolidation, Intercompany-reconciliation, Prepare note disclosure.
        This position requires strong technical accounting skills, and experience with multi-divisional financial statements, preferably for a public company.
        The monthly, quarterly and annual requirements of this NEW position are to:
        - Prepare consolidated external financial statements
        - Prepare inter-company reconciliation and take appropriate actions
        - Provide analysis/support/communication to senior management
        - Prepare/review financial statement note disclosure
        Successful candidates MUST have:
        - CGA,CMA,CA (preferred) or equivalent experience
        - Strong knowledge of GAAP
        - Experience with major ERP systems
        - Advanced Excel and Access skills

        1. How complex could the consolidation process be?
        2. What would be involved in the entire consolidation process?
        3. Could you tell me what are recent GAAP changes specifically related to consolidation or I need to look up them all?
        4. What would be involved in consolidation system maintenance?
        5. What would be common issues that need to be analyzed or address in a consolidation process?


        1. For a company with complex legal organizational structure, consolidation process could be quite complicate and may involve consolidation of 100% owned subsidiaries,
        less than 100% owned subsidiaries, partnership, equity investment, proportional consolidation,etc. It doesn't really tell much in the job posting. and how complicate the consolidation process could be。I would suggest that you read their quarterly and annual external FS to get a general understanding of the business, its structure, financial statement items, and notes to FS (pay attention to the notes disclosures
        as you will be assist in preparing them).

        - Consolidation reporting procedure, including recurring and non recurring consolidated journal entries
        - Frequently incurred consolidation issues
        - Foreign exchange issues
        - Recent GAAP changes
        - Consolidation system maintenance
        - Intercompany transaction/balance reconciliation
        - Segment reporting
        - Consolidation analysis

        3. When I say recent GAAP changes, I don't mean it specifically related to consolidation. As being a public company FS preparer, you have to track any changes of GAAP.

        4. Consolidation system maintenance involves locking data input, global and entity exchange rate input, intercompany schedule updates, legal structure updates, period rollover, journal entries rollover,etc.

        5. The biggest issues related to consolidation is the equity changes. Whenever there is an acquisition or divestiture event, a series of equity changes will incur. The treatment depends on the nature of the events, like split off, spin off, leverage buyout.更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
      • Assisted with the preparation of financial statement, reports and analysis on an entity and consolidated basis: Assisted with the preparation of financial statement, reports and analysis on an entity and consolidated basis:
        1. Produce draft financial statement from main G/L system as well as consolidation
        2. Prepare main account analysis of consolidated financial statements, mainly
        on monetary assets, non-monetary assets, reserves, fixed assets. Analysis
        should be different from G/L account analysis in that more focus on business
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      • How to prepare effectively for CMA Entrance Examination? How to prepare effectively for CMA Entrance Examination?
        本文发表在 rolia.net 枫下论坛Question
        By: newcomer546(我不知道);

        Can someone who wrote this exam share their experiece for parparing the EE with us ?

        Answer 1
        By london2007 (妞妞) at 2008.7.18 22:22 (#18787@41)

        I did the Accelerated Program (correspondence lecture), which indeed was very helpful. I think the instructor Jacque Maurice is the best instructor that i know in the program. By simply watching his lectures on DVD and do your homework strictly according to schedule, you can learn so well without even reading the textbook. If you attanded his class or Accelerated Program, and you did well on AP tests (above 70%), it is not necessary to attend the preparation program.

        HOWEVER, if you never did the AP program, I suggest you take the preparation program because it wraps up all the knowledge points you need to know in a few pamphlets and go over everything with you in class. And the 2 mock exams are very helpful too. But don't expect too much from the instructors, it's just rough to go over managment accounting/financial accounting in 2 days. They just guide you through it. If you don't do your homework, those classes are useless. Your brain will be full and you will feel exhausted in the tedious class. So you get your pamphlet, and you have to study very hard on your own first and always! If there is any secret, studying hard is the one.

        Study hard and study early. Make yourself a plan and stick to it. Do your exercises and summarize them. Don't wait till the last minute to find it's too late.

        There is soft topics that requires reading, hundreds of pages. Make a reading plan too, highlight the important things. And try to go over them again before the exam.

        That's something i can contribute, and hope that helps. The key is to do exercises and study hard!

        Answer 2
        by qingxi (菁昔) at 2008.7.18 23:54 (#18815@41)



        这次soft topic 考的比想象的多,这是我的弱项。题量比预计的少,两次模拟考都是120道,这次只有100道。所以时间基本够用,当然是指能勉强完成。

        其实这次考试,考的不是我的强项。中国学生擅长计算分析,用我台湾同学的话说:我最喜欢那些绕来绕去的财务计算题了,把西人绕晕了,我们就赢了!备考的技术方面讲,无他,唯手熟而。上完AP,我着实松了一口气。要上班,回家要带个三岁大的孩子,能坚持每周六上课,对我来说,真的不易。上preparation课时,我真的是在敷衍,迟到早退,上课听多少算多少,但是模拟考作用很大。考前请了两周假,只来得及把preparation 的资料看一遍,模拟题做两遍,根本不可能回头看 AP的资料了。soft topic是我的软肋,要靠平时积累的,这部分我考的很差。

        再来说一下考试时间安排,一定要有策略性!找自己擅长的开始,我是先MA, 后SOFT TOPIC, 最后FA. MA是一定要过60%,不然其他考的再好也没用。有策略性的放掉一些计算量很大的题,猜一下,就让它过去。

        最后说点题外话,非常感谢吴音!希望她早日康复!!去年这个时候,做了一年的AR,何去何从,很是迷茫。吴音给了我很大鼓励,这一年下来,机缘巧合, 上了公司一个中级职位。因为没有本地学历,CFO很难了解。CMA的成绩让CFO对我有信心,在上这个职位时起了很大作用。 我知道前面的路更难,P2更是我的弱势,但无论如何,总是努力了,才可能有机会!

        Answer 3. 关于学习笔记和学习计划
        by london2007 (妞妞) at 2008.7.19 22:45 (#18868@41)

        我强烈建议你上一下preparation course,因为课程中发的4本册子,已经总结概括了所有考试内容。我考试的时候就是看着这些册子的总结来复习的。我没有做什么学习笔记,如果有notes主要都是自己做的习题,还有老师上课讲的例题。

        应为考试的内容是multiple choice,主要是算题为主,如果有些概念题也是以应用的为主,死记硬背的特别少,因为我上过MBA,所以很多softtopic的内容,象strategic managment等,已经融汇贯通了,再看看就能想起来。不难的。

        那个qingxiJJ讲的特别对,考试的时候也要讲策略,先做会作的题。不好意思的是,我发现我还是顺着做比较得心应手。不过因为会计是主要的,所以最好把managment accounting和最后一部分的financial accounting放在前面做完,再怎样也不要放到最后一个小时,因为我发现我的脑子最后一小时已经不转了。只能作些finance和tax的问题,这些问题考得比较浅,不难,所以相对好点。

        总之我认为对没有上过AP的人来说,preparation course是非常有必要的,不但拿到学习资料,还有宝贵的模考机会,让你发现考试的策略和自己的弱项。而且每次模考都有名次,基本上你模考怎样,最后的考试也差不多了。

        还有你加入了preparation course的话,要多多注意cma给你发的email,里面讲的事项还是很重要的。会给你发些链接之类的,cma网上还有study guide,我主要看得是softtopic,其他的都用得preparation course给的材料,已经够了。

        学习时间么,可以自己掌握,看看总共有多少页reading要读,然后看看有多时间,最好给自己留个10天左右的余地。比如考试10月20日,现在7月20日,你有400页reading,那么花80天看完,每天至少看5页。基本上在计划内完成就可以了。如果时间来不及,不能面面俱到,那么就要舍得放弃,看主要的就行了。更多精彩文章及讨论,请光临枫下论坛 rolia.net
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